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THE VIRTUES AND IMPORTANCE OF HAJJ/UMRAH

Hajj means to visit the sacred house of Allah in Makkah Mukarramah during the days of Hajj, (i.e.
8, 9, 10, 11 and l2th of Zil Hijjah). This is the fifth of the religious duties of a Muslim

Pilgrimage to the house of Allah is a bounded duty unto mankind for him who has the means to find the way thereunto, and whosoever disbelieves, then verily Allah is free and Independent from the entire universe. (Qur'aan; Surah Aale Imraan, verse 97)
Rasulullah is reported to have mentioned:

  1. "Verily Allah has declared Hajj Farz upon you, therefore perform Hajj."
  2. "Hasten in performing Hajj, for verily one never knows what will befall him."
  3. "One who dies white on his journey for Hajj, Allah will record the reward of Hajj for him upto the day of Qiyamah, and one who dies while on his journey for Umrah Allah will record the reward of Umrah for him upto the day of Qiyamah."
  4. "For an accepted Hajj, there is no reward besides Jannah (Paradise)."
  5. "One who possesses wealth and has all the means by which he could reach the Sacred House of Allah (the Ka'bah) and yet does not perform Hajj, he then may either die as a Nasraani (Christian) or a Majoos (fire-worshipper)."
UPON WHOM IS Hajj FARZ (CONDITIONS)

Hajj is FARZ once in a lifetime upon every adult, male and female. The conditions that make Hajj FARZ are as follows.
  1. To be a Muslim;
  2. To be mentally fit (not insane);
  3. To be physically fit, (not invalid or handicapped);
  4. Buloogh, (to be physically matured);
  5. To be a free person, (not to be a slave);
  6. To have sufficient provision for one's dependants, e.g. children, for the duration of one's absence as well as to possess all requirements for travel and be financially independent. If one has the means to travel and staying at Makkah Mukarramah, Muzdalifah, Meena and Arafat.
    •Hajj becomes FARZ even though one does NO have the means of going to Madinah Munawwara.
  7. Security of route;
  8. A woman must be accompanied by her husband or a Mahram. (A Mahram is a male member of the family whom she is NOT allowed to marry according to Islaamic Law.)
If any of the above conditions are not found, Hajj will not be FARZ.
Once the above conditions are found, Hajj becomes Farz. It becomes Waajib upon such a person to perform Hajj during the first available Hajj period. Delaying the Hajj will be a sinful act.

MASAA'IL REGARDING THE MAHRAM

  1. If the Mahram is a minor or one who is so irreligious that he cannot be trusted by even his mother and sister, then it is not proper to travel with such a person.
  2. . When a trustworthy Mahram is found, it is not permissible for the husband to refuse permission for her to travel. If he does, she should still proceed for Hajj.
  3. A girl almost attaining maturity should also be accompanied by a Mahram.
  4. A woman going for Hajj (with a Mahram) should bear all the cost of the Mahram.
  5. If no Mahram is found by a woman all her life, it will not be regarded a sin if she does not perform Hajj. However, such a woman MUST mention in her will that someone be sent for Hajj on her behalf after her death. This will be binding on her inheritors provided it be possible to fulfill the Hajj expenses from one-third of her estate.
OTHER MASAA'IL

A person delayed his FARZ Hajj. He thereafter becomes blind or so ill that he is unable to undertake the journey. Such a person should draw up a will for Hajje Badal after his death.

If one has left so much wealth after his death that after discharging his liabilities, Hajje Badal can be performed from one-third of the remaining wealth, then it is essential for the heirs of the deceased to carry out the will.

If one-third is not sufficient to cover the expenses for Hajj, then the heirs are not obliged to carry out the will.

However, if they willingly make up the deficiency then someone may be sent for Hajje Badal.

N.B. To use the wealth of Naa Baalighs (minors), even with their consent, is not permissible

If one-third of the legacy was not sufficient to carry out the will and the heirs did not agree to part with their share, and thus Hajje Badal was not performed, then the deceased is not sinful.

It is NOT proper for a woman in IDDAT, being widowed or divorced, to disrupt her Iddat and go for Hajj.

While in Ihram, a woman should not cover her face with a cloth. A net is used for this purpose. It should be tied on the face in a manner that it does NOT TOUCH the face.

TYPES OF HAJJ

THERE ARE THREE TYPES OF HAJJ:
  1. QlRAAN: To perform Umrah first in the month: of Hajj, (Shawwaal, Zil Qa'dah and the first days of Zil Hijjah) and thereafter to perform Hajj with one Ihraam, i.e. one will remain in the Haram of Makkah (varying from 5 to 14.5 km in various directions) in the state of Ihraam from the moment the Meeqaat is entered until the Ihraam is released on the 1Oth Zil Hijjah.
  2. TAMATTU: To perform Umrah during the month of Hajj and release the Ihraam. Thereafter perform Hajj the same year without leaving the Meeqaat.
  3. IFRAAD: To perform Hajj only, during the days of Hajj.
The one who performs:

  1. Qiraan is called a Qaarin.
  2. Tamattu is called a Mutamatti'.
  3. Ifraad is called a Mufrid.
According to the Hanafi school of thought Qiraan is considered the best. Thereafter Tamattu' a lastly Ifraad.

Once the intention is made to discharge the obligation of Hajj, it is Farz to study the Masaa'il of Hajj (preferably under the guidance of an Aalim). for this purpose one may refer to the Kitab:- Hajj-Umrah-Ziyarat by Mufti Abdullah bin Abdur Rahman Ebrahim, obtainable from Ilmi Publications, Box 25051, Ferreeirasdorp, Transvaal, South Africa.

The 5 days of Hajj (in brief)

1st day: 8th Zul Hijjah, Yaum-ut-Tarwiyah
After putting on their Ihraams for Hajj, the Hajjees proceed to MlNA after sunrise and perform 5 Salaahs there, i.e. Zohar, Asr, Maghrib, Esha and Fajr of the next day (9 Zil Hijjah).

2nd day: 9th Zul Hijjah, Yaum-ul-Arafah
After sunrise the Hajjees proceed to ARAFAAT and make WUQOOF after ZAWAAL. Zohar and Asr Salaah will be performed here. Here they remain engaged in Du'aa, Zikr, Tilaawat, etc. until sunset. Immediately after sunset they proceed to Muzdalifah. Here they will perform Maghrib and Esha at the time of Esha. The night will be spent at Muzdalifah.

3rd day: 10th Zul Hijjah, Yaum-un-Nahr
After performing Fajr Salaah at Muzdalifah, the Hajjees proceed to Mina before sunrise. On this day four important rites have to be performed.

  1. RAMEE of Jamaratul Aqabah (stoning the big Shaytaan).
  2. ZABH (to sacrifice an animal).
  3. HALQ or Qasr (shaving or trimming the hair of the head).
  4. To perform TAWAAFUZ ZIYAARAH
4th day: 11th Zul Hijjah
All three SHAYTAANS have to be pelted on this day and the night will be spent at MINA. RAAMEE, i.e. pelting time begins after ZAWAAL and ends before SUNSET.

5th day: 12th Zul Hijjah
Make Ramee, i.e. pelt all three Shaytaans after Zawaal. The Hajjees may now proceed to MAKKAH MU'AZZAM. Those who wish to remain in Mina on the l3th Zul Hijjah should pelt the 3 Shaytaans before proceeding to Makkah Mukarramah. The pelting on this day is permissible throughout the day (including the period before Zawaal).

Umrah

It is Sunnate Muakkadah to perform Umrah once in a lifetime. Umrah could be performed practically throughout the year. However, an Umrah during Ramadhaan is superior to the Umrah performed on other days. Rasulullah has mentioned, "An Umrah performed during Ramadhaan is equal (in reward) to performing Hajj with me." It is Makroohe Tahreemee to perform Umrah on the 9, 10, 11 and l2th of Zil Hijjah (the days of Hajj).

The Faraa'idh and Waajibat of Umrah


There are two Farz in Umrah:

  1. To wear the Ihraam.
  2. To complete at least four circuits of Tawaaf.
THERE ARE THREE WAAJIBAATS IN UMRAH:

  1. Completion of all seven circuits of Tawaaf.
  2. Sa'ee between Safa and Marwah.
  3. Shaving of the hair or trimming it (equally) on all sides.
The procedure of Umrah (in brief)


  1. Put on the Ihraam before entering Meeqaat (boundary).
  2. Perform two Rak'aats Sunnatul Ihraam.
  3. Say the Niyyah and Talbiyah.
  4. Proceed to Makkah Mukarramah, en route recite the Talbiyah constantly.
  5. Perform a Tawaaf with Idtibaa and Ramal.
  6. Perform two Rakaats Waajib Salaat (after the Tawaaf) behind MAQAAME IBRAHIM.
  7. Proceed to the Multazam and Zam Zam well
  8. Perform Sa'ee between Safa and Marwah.
  9. Shave or trim the hair of the head.
Detailed lesson on Umrah

IHRAAM:
It is incumbent upon all persons living beyond the Meeqaat (boundary) to put on the Ihraam if they intend going to Makkah Mukarramah. A woman not in the state of performing Salaat is not excused from this. It is Sunnat to have a bath before putting on the Ihraam. If this is not possible, Wudhu will suffice. It is Mustahab to pair the nails, trim the hair and remove all unwanted hair before the bath.

The Ihraam for men consists of two pieces of cloth, one for the lower portion of the body (waist upto above the ankles) and the other for the upper portion of the body. The head and face should be left uncovered. No other garments should be worn. The footwear should be such that the (centre bones) of the upper part of the feet (the area of the shoe-lace) must be left uncovered.

Women will put on their normal clothes. However, their heads must be fully covered. Their faces and hands (upto the wrists) COULD be exposed. It becomes WAAJIB to cover their faces if they fear Fitnah. This should be done in such a manner that the covering does NOT touch the face.

TWO RAK'AATS SUNNAT OF IHRAAM
  1. After putting on the Ihraam, perform Sunnatul Ihraam with the headgear not in the state of performing Salaah. A woman in the state of not performing salaah, will not perform this Salaah.
  2. She will perform Ghusl.
  3. put on her clothes (which will serve as her Ihraam).
  4. Make the Niyyah and recite the Talbiyah.
  5. After entering Makkah Mukarramah she will take a bath when Salaah becomes Farz on her.
  6. wear her clothes (which will serve as her Ihraam) and perform the Umrah).
NIYYAH AND TALBIYAH

After having performed the two Rak'aats Sunnat of Ihraam, remove the headgear (men only) and say the Niyyah and Talbiyah which are Waajib. (Without this the Ihraam will not be accepted.) If one goes beyond the Meeqaat without the Niyyah (with Ihraam), Dum will have to be given. The Niyyah is as follows:
O Allah, I intend performing Umrah, render it easy for me, and accept it from me.
The Talbiyah is as follows:

Here I am at Your service O Allah, I am present, I am present. You have no partner, I am present, All praise and graciousness as well as the entire Universe is Yours, You have no partner.
 
When in Ihraam repeat the Talbiyah as often as possible. It is Mustahab to repeat it thrice whenever recited. After the Niyyah and Talbiyah one becomes a Muhrim (one whose Ihraam is valid).

When in IHRAAM, abstain from the following:

  1. Quarrelling and using vulgar languages.
  2. Clipping the nails.
  3. Hunting of wildlife, chasing game or aiding a hunter in any way.
  4. Killing lice, indicating it to others and removing it from the body or hair.
  5. To use perfume, scent and every other thing that has a fragrance, e.g. fragrant soap, etc.
  6. To trim, shave or clip the hair off the body.
  7. Intercourse, and everything relating or leading to it.
  8. The males must not wear sewn garments, underwear, gloves or socks. Their heads and faces must NOT be covered at any time.
  9. To comb or groom the hair.
  10. It is Makrooh to wash ones head and beard with soap. It is also Makrooh to remove dirt from ones body by using soap or any other cleansing agent.

The following things are permitted for a MUHRIM
  1. To take a bath, be it Waajib or to cool ones body.
  2. Killing of wild dogs, crows, scorpions flies, bugs, mosquitoes, cockroaches and wild animals that are harmful.
  3. To use a Miswaak.
  4. To slaughter cattle, poultry, sheep and goats.
  5. To rub the body gently, taking note that no hair falls off the body.
  6. To use odourless Surma.
ENTRY INTO MAKKAH MUKARRAMAH :

  1. On reaching Makkah Mukarramah one should find accommodation and settle first. Thereafter it is Mustahab (preferable) to perform Ghusl. If this is not possible, Wudhu will suffice. Do not use soap or shave when bathing.
  2. Thereafter enter the Musjidul Haraam, preferably through Babus Salaam.
  3. It should be remembered that a woman, not in the state of performing Salaah, should NOT enter the Musjid.
  4. Enter with the right foot, with utmost humbleness and respect and recite:
 
O Allah, open for us the doors of Your mercies, and make easy for as the means of livelihood
The Niyyah for I’tikaaf should also be made



I intend making I’tikaaf for Allah till I remain in the Masjid
and the Talbiyah be recited constantly.


Here I am at Your service O Allah, I am present, I am present, You have no partner, I am present, All praise and graciousness as well as the entire Universe is Yours, You have no partner
On sighting the Ka’ba Shareef recite:


O Allah, You are Peace, and from You is peace, therefore keep us alive with peace. O Allah, increase this house of Yours with reverence, dignity, honour and respect, and increase those who perform Hajj or Umrah towards it in dignity, honour, reverence, obedience and righteousness

Thereafter one should engage himself in making Du'aa (supplication) for this is a place where Du'aas are accepted.

If a Farz, Waajib or Sunnah Mu'akkadah Salaah has still to be performed, then this should be completed before commencing the Tawaaf.

IDTIBAA

Before commencing the Tawaaf, make Idtibaa, (i.e. the covering of the body in a manner that the left shoulder, left arm and back are covered and the right arm entirely exposed.

Discontinue with the Idtibaa after the Tawaaf has been completed.

The two Rak'aat Waajib Salaah should NOT be performed with the arm exposed, (i.e. with Idtibaa).

THE TAWAAF
After Idtibaa face the Ka'ba in a manner that the entire Hajjare Aswad remains on your right and the left shoulder towards Rukna Yamaanee.
Stand as close as possible to the Hajjare Aswad.
Now say the Niyyah, which is Waajib.
The Niyyah is as follows:


O Allah, I intend performing Tawaaf around Your sacred house, seven circuits for Allah, who is Mighty and Dignified. hence render it easy for me and accept it from me

Move sideways to your right, towards the Hajjare Aswad (with the face and chest towards the Ka'ba until in line with (squarely opposite) the Hajjare Aswad. This is Mustahab. If this is difficult, say the Niyyah while standing in line with the Hajjare Aswad (diametrically opposite).

When squarely opposite the Hajjare Aswad, raise both the hands to the ears (as one does when beginning Salaah). Say while raising the hands.

After lowering the hands, make Istilaam of the Hajjare Aswad. A Mu'tamir (one performing Umrah) will discontinue with the Talbiyah after the first Istilaam.

ISTILAAM:

Istilaam is to place both hands on the Hajjare Aswad and to kiss it gently thrice, between the two palms. (Be careful not to harass, push or hurt anyone in the process). Hands should not be placed on the silver ring when kissing the Hajjare Aswad.

If Istilaam is not possible, merely place the hands on the Hajjare Aswad. If this is also not possible, then one should stand diametrically opposite the Hajjare Aswad and stretch both the hands, with the palms facing the Hajjare Aswad (as if one were placing them on it). Thereafter kiss the hands and commence the Tawaaf.

If this is also not possible, then merely say the Takbeer when raising the hands to the ears and commence the Tawaaf.

It is Sunnat to make Istilaam of the Hajjare Aswad in all seven circuits. However, on completion of the seventh circuit, Istilaam is Sunnate Mu'akkadah (emphasised Sunnah).

RAMAL:

In the first three circuits of Tawaaf it is Sunnat to make Ramal (for men only).

Ramal means to walk hastily, take shorter steps, lifting the legs forcefully, keeping the chest out and moving the shoulders simultaneously. One should walk normally in the four remaining circuits.

Commence the Tawaaf by moving towards the door of the Ka'ba counter-clockwise). Move around the Ka'ba and the Hateem. It is Mustahab to place the right palm or both the palms on the Rukne Yamaanee during every round.

Touching it any other way or kissing it, is not recommended by the Shari'at.

When there are huge crowds or inconvenience is caused to others by touching the Rukne Yamaanee, omit it.

Perform Tawaaf with utmost humbleness, sincerity, dignity and respect. It is recommended that during Tawaaf ones behaviour and conduct be similar to that of Salaah. Looking about, pushing, mocking, etc. should be avoided.

It is Sunnah to recite the following Du'aas during Tawaaf:


O Allah, Give me contentment in that which You have provided for me and bestow me with Barakat therein, and be a successor of all whom I have left behind. There is no deity except Allah, He is alone, He has no partner, The universe belongs solely to Him, and all praise is solely for Him, He alone gives life and death, in His hands lies all the good, and He has infinite power over everything
O Allah, grant us goodness in this world, and goodness in the hereafter and save us from the punishment of the fire
Allah is free from every imperfection and impurity, and everything derogatory from His glory, and all praise is due to Allah, and there is no deity worthy of worship besides Allah, and Allah is the greatest. and there is no strength (to do good) nor power (to abstain from sin) but with the grace and mercies of Allah, the Highest and Greatest

Besides these, any other Du'aa could be recited. Making Zikir and reciting the Holy Qur'aan are also permissible. (Women should not raise their voices whilst making Du'aa.)

TWO RAK'AATS WAAJIB SALAAH AFTER TAWAAF

After completing the Tawaaf, perform two Rak'aats Waajib Salaah, behind Maqaame Ibrahim. If this is difficult, one may perform it at any other place (in the Musjide Haraam), preferably close to the Ka'ba.

These two Rak'aats should not be performed during the forbidden and Makrooh times, (i.e. at sunrise, Zawaal, sunset or after Asr Salaah).

For a Tawaaf performed after Asr, the two Waajib Rak'aats will be performed immediately after the three Farz of the Maghrib Salaah, and not after the Sunnah of the Maghrib Salaah. It is Mustahab to recite Surah Kaafiroon in the first Rak'ah and Surah Ikhlaas in the second Rak'ah.

Remember: The two Rak'aats Waajib have to be performed for every complete Tawaaf, (i.e. seven circuits).

PROCEED TO THE MULTAZAM AND ZAM ZAM WELL
 
One should now proceed to the Multazam, (the area between the elevated door (of the Ka'ba) and the Hajjare Aswad). Embrace this place by stretching both the hands above the head and clinging to the wall of the Ka'ba. One should make abundant Du'aa as this is also a place for the acceptance of Du'aas. Shed as many tears as possible and make Du'aa most humbly and sincerely.

It should be remembered that, in the process, one should avoid disturbing, hurting or pushing anyone. After the Du'aa, one should go to the well of Zam-Zam and drink as much water as is possible. When drinking Zam-Zam, stand facing the Holy Kaba, recite Bismillah and drink with the right hand. Recite the following Du'aa after drinking Zam-Zam:

O Allah, I am asking You for beneficial knowledge. and abundance in provision, and cure from every ailment

Make a lot of Du'aas at the well and also after drinking Zam-Zam. This is a place and time when Duas are accepted.

SA'EE BETWEEN SAFA AND MARWA
 
 
One should now return to the Hajjare Aswad and make Istilaam. While making Istilaam, say:

Allah is Great, there is no deity besides Allah

This Istilaam is Mustahab.

After this, proceed to Safa, (preferably through Babus Safa). On reaching Safa, climb onto the rock and facing the Ka'ba,. say the Niyyah, (which is Sunnah):

O Allah, I intend performing Sa'ee between Safa and Marwah, seven circuits for Allah, therefore, make it easy for me, and accept it from me

After the Niyyah, raise the hands parallel to the shoulders, the palms facing the heavens (as they are raised during Du'aa), and thereafter say the Takbeer (Allahu Akbar) and Tahleel (Laa ilaha illallah), aloud and Durood Sharif silently.

TAKBEER (Allahu Akbar)
TAHLEEL (Laa ilaha illallah)

Durood Sharife:
 

 
Thereafter say:

There is no deity besides Allah, He is alone, He has no partner, the universe belongs only to Him, and all praise is solely for Him, He alone gives life and death, and He has infinite power over everything. There is no deity but Allah alone, He has fulfilled His promise, and He aided His servant (Muhammad), and defeated the allies all alone


Make a lot of Du'aas here also, for this is a place where Du'aas are accepted as well. After the Du'aas, commence the Sa'ee, (seven rounds between Safa and Marwa) by moving towards Marwa, in the right lane. Walk at normal pace, and engage in Du'aa and Zikr. Also recite the following Du'aa repeatedly:
 
My Cherisher and Sustainer. forgive and have Mercy. You are Most Powerful and Most Generous


On reaching Batnul Waadi (the area between the two green columns and fluorescent lights) perform Sa'ee (slow running). Thereafter walk at normal pace again. The females will not do the slow running between the two green columns. On reaching Marwah, do exactly the same as was done at Safa. Marwah is also a place where Du'aas are certainly accepted.

One Shawt (circuit-round) is now complete. Coming from Safa to Marwah is considered one Shawt, and returning to Safa another. Complete all seven Shawts in this manner, beginning the first Shawt at Safa and completing the seventh Shawt at Marwah, not forgetting to perform Sa'ee at Batnul Waadi in each Shawt. Engage in Du'aa between Safa and Marwah as they are accepted by Allah. After completing the seven Shawts [circuits), perform two Rak'aats Nafl Salaah.

NOTE: To perform the Sa'ee immediately after the Tawaaf is Sunnah. It is permissible to delay the Sa'ee due to tiredness or other circumstances. However, delaying without any valid Shar'ee reason will render the Sa'ee Makrooh.

TWO RAK'AATS NAFL SALAAH

Perform two Rak'aats Nafl Salaah on the boundary of the Mataaf (the area where Tawaaf is performed. If these two Rak'aats are omitted there will be no harm. After completing the Salaah, or the sevsn Shawts, it becomes Waajib to shave or trim the hair of the head, (if one to release his Ihraam).

TRIMMING OR SHAVING OF THE HEAD

Great care must be taken regarding this Mas'alah for at times some hair remain shorter than the other.

After the Sa'ee, in order to release the Ihraam, it is Waajib to shave or trim the hair of the entire head to the length of the first joint of the fore finger. The hair should be trimmed more then than this as some hair remain longer than the other. Thus, by trimming more, the shorter hair will also be trimmed as much as the length of a fore finger

It is Waajib for a bald person or a person who has wounds on his head to simply pass the razor over the head.

The females will not shave their heads. According to Shari'ah it is unlawful and Haraam for them to do so. In order to release herself from the Ihraam, a woman is only permitted to have her hair trimmed. The best method is that her hair be divided into three parts, keeping one section on her right, another to her left and one to her back thereafter hold each section separately and trim as much as the first joint of the fore finger (a little more than an inch) from each section. The womenfolk must have their hair trimmed in privacy and not on the streets, or the hairdresser. A non-Mahram is not permitted to trim, touch or even look at their hair. A Mahram who is no longer a Muhrim could do the trimming for her. She cannot trim her own hair to release herself from the Ihraam.

The shaving or trimming of the hair is the last of the actions of Umrah. All the restrictions imposed because of the Ihraam, will now be lifted. The Umrah is now complete. (Allah knows best).

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